Sven, “Soil is the Solution” might be the most important environmental story you’ll ever write. It is part of the solution to our environmental challenges. The story belongs on the front of the NY Times and on 60 Minutes. – Email from Robert Reed, composting manager at Recology, San Francisco’s waste management company
by Jennie Moore, Director, Sustainable Development
and Environmental Stewardship, British Colombia
Institute of Technology
The International Ecocities Framework and Standards (IEFS) identifies human wellbeing and quality of life as an essential social feature. Specifically, “residents report satisfaction with their quality of life including employment, the built, natural and landscaped environment, physical and mental health, education, safety, recreation and leisure, and social belonging” (www.ecocitystandards.org).
Human wellbeing depends on access to resources sufficient to lead a dignified life (Raworth 2013). This includes access to natural resources such as clean air, water and energy, as well as nutritious food. It also includes access to social resources including education, healthcare, employment and recreation, participation in decisions that affect one’s life, and freedom from persecution for one’s religious beliefs.
Ecocities not only support wellbeing and quality of life through provision of affordable shelter and services, they also enable people to: access jobs close to where they live, breath clean air in car-free cities, and enjoy nature at their doorstep (Register 2006). This is achieved through compact design of the built environment that takes advantage of roof-tops (e.g., for parks and restaurants) and spaces below ground (e.g., for storage and shopping). Landscaped environments at grade blend with the natural environment to foster ecological connections that invite nature into the city (Register 2006).
Residents of ecocities enjoy a high quality of life regardless of their socio-economic status. This means that social services are provided based on need, not just an ability to pay.
An important measure for wellbeing is the Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI). Invented by Redefining Progress in 1995, the GPI considers changes in income distribution, volunteerism, crime, pollution and resource depletion as factors that affect quality of life (Redefining Progress 2013). This stands in contrast to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which measures the sum of a nation’s financial transactions, but does not consider whether those contribute or detract from the wellbeing of citizens, particularly those who are most vulnerable.
Raworth, Kate. 2013. Defining a Safe and Just Space for Humanity in Linda Starke, ed., State of the World 2013: Is Sustainability Still Possible? Washington DC: Island Press.
Redefining Progress. 2013. Sustainability Indicators: Genuine Progress Indicator (online resource) http://rprogress.org/sustainability_indicators/genuine_progress_indicator.htm (Accessed on November 14, 2013).
Register, Richard. 2006. Ecocities: Building Cities in Balance with Nature. Gabriola Island BC: New Society Publishers.
Register, Richard. 1987. Ecocity Berkeley: Building Cities for a Healthy Future. Berkeley Ca: North Atlantic Books.
British Colombia Institute of Technology School of Construction and the Environment is Lead Sponsor of the International Ecocity Framework and Standards Initiative
How well does your city move people? Chances are complaints about the inefficiencies of public transit pop up daily. After all, you interact with cars, roads, buses, and light rail constantly. At the same time, other systems of movement that go more unnoticed are essential to the functioning of the city organism. How well does your city move waste and energy? How well does it move water?
Here in Rio de Janeiro water is a constant of life. Whether flocking to the ocean, complaining of the clouds (or lack of cloud cover), or wondering when it will rain, Cariocas (residents of Rio) are surrounded by water. It doesn’t rain here as often as you might imagine, as in, say, the daily downpours of Singapore, but it is tropical. Unfortunately when the rain comes the saturated ground turns anything more than few hour’s drizzle into a potential disaster.
Tuesday night it rained as much in one night as it normally does in a month. Rio is a huge city filled with micro-climates due to the dramatic mountains that corral it. In Barra da Tijuca, a new area in the south, it seemed like a sprinkle. For the residents of the North, it was a downpour. Those living in this predominantly poor area awoke to find several feet of muddy water in their streets and homes. The extend of the flooding is astonishing. Entire neighborhoods are underwater.
With roads and the metro system flooded out, the city ground to a halt. The mayor proclaimed a state of emergency and encouraged people not to leave their houses. Businesses shut down. It was the tropical equivalent of a snow day but with disastrous consequences.
As news coverage played on repeat throughout the morning, one fact became apparent: the flooding was primarily in poor neighborhoods. “This isn’t anything new,” explained resident Fernanda. “This is a lot more rain than normal, but this type of thing happens once a month, more maybe in the summer.” The rain comes, the city stops. This time three people were reported dead. It could be more if the rain continues and starts landslides.
The exasperation of the residents in flooding areas was evident as plumes of smoke began curling up from the bairros. In the neighborhood of Novo Iguaçu people were lighting flotsam and abandoned cars on fire in protest. With whole houses practically underwater, some residents literally lost everything. This rain was the worst in some 20 years, asserted authorities in O Globo newspaper. Still, the same areas of the city had already experienced minor flooding the week before.
Despite the network of canals crossing the city, Rio’s ability to deal with this predictable natural phenomenon is woefully incompetent. Or, perhaps worse, it is consciously negligent. In feverish preparation for next year’s world cup and the 2016 Olympics, half-finished construction projects litter the city. Piles of sand and concrete block drainage paths and exacerbate the already present drainage problems in the city. Scientists predict that extreme weather patters like yesterday’s rains will only become more common as a result of climate change.
What will it take to instigate real change in Rio?
Present again is what has happened when a city prepares for the global eye of a mega event like the Olympics. New bus infrastructure, new facilities and buildings crop up in one part of the city, primarily the South in Barra. But these benefits have no significance for the majority of its citizens, especially its more vulnerable parts. These are ephemeral investments responding to a one-time need. Funds that could (potentially) go to providing better services to under-served communities–real needs, like flood control–are instead going new shopping malls and athlete’s villages. And thus Rio continues to expand south, running away from its problems.
Richard is on the road again, leaving this week for Bhutan where he will meet with government officials about building ecocities in Panbang, a province of Zhemgang.
Bhutan is a small Buddhist county nestled in the Eastern crags of the Himalayas, commonly overshadowed in the news by its neighbors Tibet, Burma, China and India. Bhutan is most commonly known for its policy of Gross National Happiness (GHN), a metric introduced by King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuckn and used to measure the well-being of its citizens and guide the development of government policy. The four pillars of GNH are the promotion of sustainable development, preservation and promotion of cultural values, conservation of the natural environment, and establishment of good governance.
The GNH measures reflect Bhutan’s Buddhist foundations which emphasize the need for spiritual and moral development to coincide with material development. Bhutan is cautious about modernization, and justly so. Most countries have embraced the luxuries of modernity while degrading precious traditional values and our connection to nature.
King Wangchuck broke with his father’s legacy and has opened Bhutan to modern changes little by little (Television appeared for the first time in 1999), hoping to adopt the benefits of new technology while avoiding the evils. The results are mixed – crime, materialism and dissatisfaction are rising, but not to the rates of most other countries. Some educated Bhutanese returning from educations in the West seek to lead the country in a unique blend of Buddhist values and Western practices.
For example, for every tree cut down they plant three new ones and claim to be the only country with proven negative CO2 production, that is, they absorb more CO2 out of the atmosphere than they put into it. Notably, English has been adopted as the universal language in Bhutan and is taught in the all free school system there (financed largely by sale of electricity from hydropower to India), a testament to the seriousness of their careful opening to modern ideas and ways.
Bhutan faces the enormous challenge of engaging reasonable change without being overwhelmed by the two gigantic countries on either side: China and India, India being their closest development partner to date. China crushed Buddhist Tibet and India ousted the Buddhist government of Sikkim, leaving Bhutan as the last country in the region with a King and traditional Tantric Buddhist religion at its core. At the same time, the King instituted a parliamentary system and has granted increasing legislative and administrative powers to a growing to date ever more democratic government.
The concept of the ecocity blends well with the philosophy of Bhutan. An ecocity is an opportunity to balance modern technology with these traditional values, blending simplicity and convergance to nature with infrastructure to support modern conveniences such as sanitation and electricity. Bhutan’s proposed ecocity will be situated near the south edge kingdom, north of the Gangiatic plane, and south of the foothills of the Himalayas. The idea is to build a leading city for “education, sport and eco-tourism” with an eye to bringing their GNH (Gross National Happiness) theme together with the leading ecocity project in the world.
Richard’s vision is to take seriously the notion that happiness is a higher goal than maximum materialist consumption. It seems unthinkable that the general happiness and well-being of a people is not the highest priority indicator of their wealth. Yet Bhutan is the only country to explicitly say so. For the rest of us, the generation of paper and electronic numbers continues to be the applauded standard of well-being. We are left with other numbers to suggest the failings of our own gross national happiness: rising rates of disease, hospitalization, divorce, drug use and more.
Says Richard, “If we can design and build the sustainable city for a happy future – it would be such a large chunk of the solution, who could ask for anything more?”
More exciting developments on the 2013 Ecocity Summit! After culling from over 500 proposals from 48 different countries, the summit organizers have unveiled their final program selections. September 25-27 will be packed with 100 diverse, thought provoking and enlightening lectures, workshops and presentations.
A bit about the Ecocity Summit Program:
The program organizers have used a novel grouping system to select the presenters and organize the program information. Firstly, each presentation or workshop at the summit addresses one or more of the five main themes:
- Reducing the environmental footprint
- Addressing energy challenges of the city
- Organizing and systems
- Strengthening solidarity and participation
- Mobilizing enabling factors
Presentations are further grouped under approach categories, including thinking, shaping, financing and governing. A matrix of all the planned programs enables you to searching for theme or approach so you can easily find the programs and themes you are most interested in.
You can also view a tentative scheduling of the programs here: Pre-program schedule.
Early registration is now underway for the Summit Conference and there are numerous benefits to signing up early. Visit the Ecocity Summit website to register now!
Online registration is now live for the Ecocity Summit in Nantes, this September 25th-27th. With online registration, you can set up a personal profile and visit this space any time to modify or finalize your registration process. Registering also allows you to have access to the private section of the website (Contributions Library and Gallery of group discussions).
The Ecocity World Summit brings together organizations and individuals from around the world to share solutions and discuss the state of human settlements and sustainability. Find our more about the International Ecocity Framework Standards click here.
Are you a student, jobseeker, researcher and/or from a developing country? You can qualify for reduced tickets for all three days. More information is available at the website.
Building on water eliminates flood risk and enables expansion
For thousands of years, human settlements have clustered around flood planes, from the banks of the Amazon River to lake Tonle Sap in Cambodia, to the marshes of the Netherlands. These settlements are designed to account for the seasonal ebb and flow of sea and fresh water, often by constructing buildings on raised platforms and/or building dykes, dams and canals. Yet as global climate change leads to increasing sea levels, almost every coastal city will face the challenge of encroaching waters.
Presenters at the Global Town Hall for infrastructure solutions held last week in Germany introduced innovative solutions for cities on the brink. “13 out of the world’s 21 megacities are harbor cities, of which Shanghai is most vulnerable to flood and related hazards,” said Professor Markus Quante at the town hall.
Instead of holding back the flood, several presenters suggested ways to completely re-imagine a city on the water. Rutger de Graaf from DeltaSync, a design firm that specializes in sustainable flood-proof urban development in delta areas, says cities can float on water and yet stay dry and resilient. Floating structures on water eliminate the threat of flood damage and can be a viable option for city expansion. In addition, city waste such as carbon dioxide and biowaste can be used to farm algae and in turn raise fish in urban areas.
“Urbanization in delta areas has caused increasingly severe flood. It has also added pressure on space, food, energy and other resources,” said de Graaf, adding that by 2025 the world will run short of at least 22 million km2 of land – an area equivalent to the North American continent.
The city of Rotterdam is already experimenting with floating urbanization, building its first floating pavilion at the Rijnhaven harbor. Designed by DeltaSync, the three domed structures cover the area of four tennis courts and are not only self-sufficient, relocatable structures that purify their own waste water, but also rise automatically according to rising water levels. The city plans to add many more floating buildings, including a park, as part of the Rijnhaven harbor redevelopment master plan.
Another 1,200 floating structures are planned to open in 2040 in Stadhavens – an area designated for sustainable housing development, floating communities, recreation, and research on energy generation such as tidal energy and cooling and heating from river water.
The city of Semarang, the capital of Central Java, and other coastal cities are working with the Dutch to implement their water management expertise in their own districts. Semarang has already lost 98.2 hectares of land between 1991 and 2009 due to land erosion accelerated by climate change.
Find out more about DeltaSync’s project at their website.