Ecocity Summit Abstracts from around the world… INDIA

For a full breakdown of abstracts you can explore during the Academic Sessions of the Summit, click here.

Here’s a look at Abstracts from INDIA alone.

India:

Relevance of Traditional Indian Value System to Ecocity

The traditional Indian values, seen in today’s context of deteriorating quality of environmental resources and increasing concern for the sustainability of development , are very contemporary in their relevance and application potential. Though sustainable development and ecologically appropriate lifestyle are a relatively new concept in the Western world, it has been an integral part of the traditional Indian culture and philosophy for ages. The Vedas is as much the source of Indian value system as the source of much of the traditional knowledge and religious-cultural practices. Harmonious existence of distinctly different entities, made possible only with tolerance, acceptance of difference and openness to things or aspects that are external to the system, is a main tenet of Indian value system. Nature, and every aspect of earth, is considered divine manifestation of God. Man is seen only as a trustee of the earth and its resources. Appropriate moral guidelines are interwoven into the way of life. The scriptural codes prescribe man;s conduct towards all aspects of nature. The paper presents, after a brief theoretical exploration into the linkages between nature, culture, ecocity and value system, argues that the appropriate value system is the necessary instrument for establishing sustainability which characterizes ecocity. Besides listing the relevant Indian values, glimpses of traditional value-based practices of India, fostering resource conservation, ecological development and responsible behavior toward environment, are presented, through examples and case studies, covering diverse regions and facets of lifestyles. It also analyzes the traditional practices of value system from practical and philosophical points of view. The inferences drawn from this study are useful for universal application in development of not just sustainable ecocity but provides the operative basis for managing spaceship earth.

Studies On An Indigenous Pisciculture Practice Using Wastewater At East Calcutta Wetlands, A Ramsar Site In India

Beyond the eastern edge of the city of Kolkata, a vast wetland area is present. This cluster of marshlands, known as East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW: 2227’N 08827’E; area 12,500ha), a Ramsar Site (no. 1208) in India is unique in many characteristics. For the past century industrial effluents (from around 6000 different industries) mixed with municipal sewage (around 50,000 m 3 d-1) of the city are being deposited in the wetland areas without any pre-treatment. This wastewater flows down through a web of canals into the area and confluence with a river Kulti-Bidyadhari (also known as Kultigong River) about 40 km eastwards from the Kolkata city. This composite wastewater is observed to play an important role in the ECW ecosystem as discharges are being productively utilized in the aquaculture after stabilization and also being used to irrigate adjoining farmlands. It is a unique agro-ecosystem that has sustained the world’s largest practice of integrated resource recovery for more than 50 years. The ECW consists of 264 operating wastewater-fed ponds (locally called Bheris with mean depths 1.4 m), which are spread over 3,500 ha water area produces nearly 11,000 metric tons of fish annually. The hydraulic regime of these shallow ponds as maintained by the farmers is unique, having fairly high photosynthetic activities, involving natural biological purification against the regular loading of the wastewater at daytime. Water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) culture is also retained around the periphery of the ponds for preventing bank erosion by the surface waves, providing shades to the fish during summer and purifies pond water. Making use of the wetland ecosystem and the tropical climate, the technicality of application of the composite effluents into edible productions, developed through the years of practices providing livelihood of around 50,000 peoples in the area.

DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLIGENT SELF SUFFICIENT HOUSING AS COMPONENT OF ECOCITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

The concept of self sufficient housing is to develop a self-contained commune with a building unit designed to cater the needs of approximately 15 to 20 families. The provisions will be made in these housing to enable the inhabitants to produce their own energy, grow their own agricultural produces for food, recycle all the resources/ waste. These units will be essentially located in rural/ countryside areas. The building will be planned in such a way that it will use non-conventional/ renewal energy sources totally and will not use any form of external energy source. The building will be planned in such a way that it will use non-conventional & renewal energy sources totally and will not use any form of external energy source like electrical grid network or fossil fuels, etc. The main objective of this research is to develop suitable architectural designs for self-sufficient housing units incorporating the necessary infrastructures, like equipment of energy generation. Energy is a burning problem of present era. The conventional centralized energy distribution network accounts for high transmission losses (ranging from 9% to 20% at times) The energy consumption in residential structures accounts considerably high than other buildings, also it is a recurring ever cost increasing phenomena. It is very difficult to remain in the city and save energy beyond a certain limit without compromising the present day materialistic lifestyle by the city dweller households. Also the factor of polluting the environment by using conventional fossil fuels for energy generation accounts for a disastrous future.

Towards a car free Asian mega city —-Reinterpreting Edmund Bacons theory of Simultaneous Movement Systems in Calcutta

The number of megacities (10 million or more inhabitants) in the world has climbed from 5 in 1975 to 14 in 1995 and is expected to reach 26 cities by 2015 with majority of them predicted to be in Asia. Confronted with the challenge of catering to the demands of it’s ever increasing population the cities are under immense pressure to upgrade the civic infrastructure like Urban Transportation. Dependence on private vehicles being an unsustainable option logically implies the need for developing an attractive system of public transport. Existing public transport in most cities are either inadequate by way of frequency, variety and connectivity. This discourages their use encouraging an unhealthy reliance on private vehicles not only by the wealthy elite but also the middle classes resulting in choked streets and pollution. Time being of prime importance in today’s world of global trade it is imperative to develop not just mere modes but an integrated system to promote speedier connectivity in order to be attractive to daily commuters. Edmund Bacon’s theory takes into account the occurrence and needs for various modes/ speeds of transport including the often overlooked pedestrian movement. The successful application in Asian megacities like Singapore and Hong Kong further testify to this. Calcutta offers a canvas that comprises of a dense historic core as well as sprawl. Having the widest variety of Public transport in India it lacks suitable integration encouraging private vehicles. Having only 4.2 % road surface the problem of congestion pollution is understandably exacerbated. Eschewing a typical piecemeal approach the paper will attempt to outline methods in which Edmund Bacon’s theory of Simultaneous Movement Systems can be used for the development of an appropriate public transportation system by integrating the various modes of transport to achieve a seamless functioning to achieve a sustainable future.

Challenges in urban water management in a changing environment  case study from a growing tropical city

Cities face a major challenge of providing their population with adequate and reliable water supply. In addition to climate change, water quality also is affected by the urban domestic and industrial wastes. The city of Kochi, India that lies in a heavy rainfall region now faces shortage of reliable water. Proximity to the sea and pollution makes the surface and groundwater unusable. Water is brought from the river Periyar from a safe point far away. Negligence to the canals, high intensity of rainfall and unscientific design of sewage system and roads block the water, resulting flooding. Roads and constructions in the city increase runoff and reduce infiltration. Sand filling of suburban paddy fields, ponds and wetlands has also reduced the freshwater availability and wastewater outflow. Present population density is 6250/km2, growing at the rate of 10.3% per decade, exerting tremendous pressure on water. In this study, a comprehensive investigation on the multiple issues related to water in Kochi has been made. Hydrological conditions during the last 100 years have been studied to provide guidelines for planning and proper management of water. Study shows that the city will face acute water shortage in near future. There has been a considerable reduction in the runoff from Periyar since the latter half of last century, because of the construction of dams and inter basin transfer of water. The river is highly polluted from the toxic effluents. Water demand in this urban area continues to grow because of significant population increase. If efficient use of available water and stringent measures to reduce water deterioration are not considered seriously, water will soon become a scarce commodity and life will become uncomfortable. The city needs an appropriate urban policy and an efficient mechanism for its implementation.

Eco Town Development at Tourist Destinations: A Public Private Partnership Model For a Himalayan Town

Mountain areas have a comparative advantage in supplying natural resources such as biodiversity and wildlife (Sinclair 1998), which forms core of the tourism product in these areas. It provides alternative economic activities to the people of remote localities otherwise having very limited options. Therefore, often the trend is towards attracting more and more people into the area to boost the local economy. However, as the number of people approaches a threshold, the conflict between maintaining a good quality environment along with tourism development increases. As the mountain tourism is demand driven (Batta, 2000) (people just show up at destinations on their own needing food and shelter and the infrastructure is then made to suit their needs), one important drawback of such a trend is that the area cannot develop a tourism product (niche) and there is often an indiscriminate development of tourism infrastructure typical of mass tourism. Such a phenomenon is also called spearheading (Brandon, 1996). Tourism development of this kind exerts a strain on urban planners and policy makers responsible for developing towns. Spread in 3 square kilometers with a population of 3000 people, Manali, is located in the famous Kullu-Manali valley of Himachal Pradesh (a province in the Indian Himalayas). About 20,000 people visit the town daily during the peak tourist season. It is popular among the domestic travelers, with this segment constituting 96 per cent of the total arrivals. It primarily attracts middle class leisure travelers as families and small groups. Tourism is the main land use of the area with more than fifty percent buildings being a hotel or a tourism related enterprise. Much of the industry depends on high volume and relatively low cost package holidays. Some hotels have management contracts with chain hotels, but the majority is owned by the locals. Over the past two decades there has been a phenomenal rise in number of tourism units in the area and with other related facilities also coming up in the area resulting from rising tourist demand, the whole economy is tourism dominated.With so many hotels and tourists in the area, the town faces serious problems in terms of solid waste management, air and water pollution and inadequacy of infrastructure. This paper examines the concept of eco town and explores its relevance for tourist destinations in the developing countries. It is argued that keeping in view the socio-economic factors in the developing countries; the eco town development policy has to incorporate eco efficiency with the 3 R and life cycle assessment concept. Aimed at achieving Zero Emission by promoting material recycle socio-economic systems through promotion of local approaches for recycling and reducing waste, an eco town development model is conceived for Manali town. Before conceptualizing the details of the model, a baseline assessment study is carried out by the author for identifying the problems in the area. The study made use of an indicator framework with indicators organized in major theme areas namely economic, ecological, social and political. Fieldwork for the study was done in summer 2006 and summer 2007. Primary data was collected from hotels, travel agencies, gift shops; associations of hotels and restaurants, gift shops and travel agents; and the local government functionaries connected with tourism and development. In all 89 interviews were conducted with accommodation owners, shop keepers, travel agents, associations and the local administration. Among the major findings of the survey are: ” All the grocery items, packed eatables, milk and poultry products, linen and raw food stuff are imported from places in the neighboring states in bulk and small packaging; ” The landscape of Manali has been seriously affected due to construction of hotels and other commercial buildings in the area. The disturbance in the soil strata has been so devastating due to heavy construction activities that Manali witnessed one of the worst landslides tragedies in the recent past; ” The development activities have not even spared the river bed. There are about 19 hotels constructed on the bed of river Beas; ” Contamination of the landscape with solid waste and untreated discharge by the hotel units is another problem being faced by the local community. There are 6 sites where problem of waste disposal has ruined the local environment and has caused visual pollution; ” There is no system of natural resource accounting to assess losses occurring to the natural environment due to economic activities nor is there any concern for life cycle analysis of products and procedures to prevent further damage. ” Most hotel establishments use electricity for their energy requirements and have not tried any renewable energy resource except the solar water heaters installed by very few. Most hoteliers however felt that their energy costs are tremendous and have gone up substantially recently. ” Manali experiences one of the worst problems of crowding and congestion during the peak tourist season. The average daily traffic volume is 7562 vehicles equivalent to 11240 PCUs with 99 per cent of these vehicles being fast moving vehicles; ” There is no local water pollution and waste policy nor has the tourism related master plan ever been thought of. Though the Town and Country Planning officials prepared a master plan in 1971, it has never been adhered to strictly as many structures have come up in the area earmarked for common facilities; ” No sustainable tourism master plan has ever been prepared though the tourism department has hired a consultant to develop plans for development of certain tourist facilities. The process of eco town development is suggested to be initiated through Public Private Partnership (PPP) using the Tourism Development Council Manali as the nodal agency. The Council is a legal entity capable of raising resources on its own. It started mobilizing funds by charging fee from the vehicles entering Manali area, seeking support from the bigger hotels for development of tourism infrastructure and coordinating with government agencies (like forest, Public Works, Irrigation and Public Health, Transport and Tourism) for pooling resources to pursue a common agenda. It is suggested that the Council could adopt a model of development that promotes tourism that is Service Centric, Supportive (both mutually and socially), and Sustainable (popularly known as the triple S model). The service centric development aims at providing institutional support, information and infrastructure. The supportive element emphasizes on coordination among the tourism units and the government agencies, community centered development and concern for safety. The sustainable aspect includes policies aimed at making the local area retain economic benefits, reinforcing local cultural values, promote 3 R concept and use of renewable energy resources.The model has been approved by the local authorities and the work on implementation has been started. Manali is today seen as an easily accessible and affordable mountain paradise in which to escape the heat of places in the south of Himalayas. This has rendered the destination prone to the effects of seasonality with strained infrastructure during the peak summers and idle capacity in the monsoon and winter seasons. The stress on available land is particularly notable as most of the agricultural land has been converted into commercial complexes. Therefore, special attention is required to be given to the areas of environmental management and community protection and participation. Efforts have to be made through the Council to popularize innovative ideas like eco-design and life cycle analysis in products and services. REFERENCES 1. Batta, R.N. (2000) Tourism and The Environment: A Quest for Sustainability. New Delhi: Indus Publishing Company. 2. Batta, R.N. (2003) Tourism,s Potential of financing Conservation Areas, Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 28, No. 1: 57-65. 3. Brandon, K (1996) Ecotourism and Conservation: A review of Key Issues, The World Bank Environment Department Papers, No. 033, Biodiversity Series.

PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF A TEMPORARY TENTED TOWNSHIP : CASE OF ALLAHABAD DURING KUMBH MELA

Indian historic cities located on the banks of the Holy Ganges have always maintained their religious importance through the ages. Take Prayag for instance, such is the magnetic pull of the Kumbh mela here, that on a single bathing day 24th January 2001 the number of devotees reached a record figure, 3 times population of Australia and 5 times that of England. Such awesome figures and statistics arouse the interest of all planners and the need to review the ecological performance of these cities. Allahabad, one of the historic cities, was regarded as a religious, educational and cultural center of India. Once acknowledged as an intellectual capital, the city has been a source of learning from time immemorial. From antiquity Allahabad has been regarded as a centre of pilgrimage. Regarded as a center of Sanskrit, Urdu and higher learning, the city is also referred to as Tirthraj, the holy festival of Kumbh confirms the position of Allahabad as an acclaimed pilgrim center. Kumbh Mela has been an integral part of the life cycle of the city, it marks the epitome of religious fervor and brings Allahabad a special sense of prestige. The planning process is undertaken for an estimated 30 million pilgrims. Kumbh : In search of Moksha. The philosophy of Kumbh is that of self realization. From the earliest times sages have converged on the bank of Holy Ganges for exchange of thoughts and views believing in the dictum that truth is one but is expressed differently by the various sages, Ekam sat viprah bahudha vadanti. In Sangam the two mighty rivers the Ganges from Gangotri and the Yamuna from Yamunotri in the Himalayas meet at Allahabad. The unity gives birth to mythical Saraswati, the Goddess of knowledge, hence the name Triveni, confluence of the three rivers. People of different religion, castes and beliefs come and take the holy dip in search of Moksha, this is for the salvation, with a feeling of sympathy, goodwill and tolerance. One can term it as an act in which the pilgrim is in quest of answers to life, it is a congregation in search of God and the knowledge of life. The number of pilgrims during festival time and regular bathers have been increasing alarmingly and measures to clean the water of Ganges and its other related aspects like sewage disposal at the pilgrim township of Kumbh in Allahabad need immediate attention. Tented township and its major concern This paper highlights the scale of the mega religious event- Kumbh, which is regarded as the most auspicious festival in India. The attempt is to draw attention towards two major planning problems faced in setting up the pilgrim township at Kumbh in Allahabad. These are pollution of Ganges water because of mass bathing during the mela, absence of permanent sewage disposal system, both posing a threat to the health of pilgrims. Secondly, planning of the tented township along the banks of Ganges. The township is a temporary one, set up for only two months, during the month of Magh and Kumbh festival. Owing to the non-static nature of the Ganges, it is not feasible to build permanent residential facilities along its banks. The temporary township, which is an annual feature for Magh Mela, Ardh Kumbha and Kumbh is an outcome of the collective work of major government agencies in providing for pilgrims. The paper is aimed to discuss the management of Kumbh. The 2001 Maha kumbh has been the biggest religious conglomeration organized in the world. This highlights the importance and makes this issue one of the top priority for urban planners.

THE RED SANDERS FORESTRY- AN ENVIRONMENTAL APPRAISAL TOWARDS AN EFFECTIVE LEGISLATION.

Pterocarpus santalinus Lin.f., popularly known as Red Sanders a member of Fabaceae is a tropical dry deciduous forest species whose unique localization is almost wholly confined to the Cuddapah Landscape and phenomenally seen no where in the world, thus the ecology is virtually being endemic to the stratigraphic outcrops of quartzite and shale of Cuddapah basin. Red Sander is a moderate sized tree apparently classified into quality one characterized by wavy-grained texture with intense red colour and the non-quality one characterized by straight-grained texture with light red in colour. In its natural habitate the tree experiences a hot semi-arid climate. The extent of distribution is deciphered by a set of LANDSAT imageries, there upon the effective area covered by the productive forests is empirically measured. The possible geoenvironmental parameters that influenced the growth is maticulously analysesd. An explicit study of trace element analysis of the plant, soil and in-situ rock samples of the growth embossing areas reveals a set of trace elements. The species is adjudged as herbicidal plant and is recommended for treatment of local endemic diseases. Thus Red Sander species are important from a commercial point of view and thereby quite a good number of countries importing the raw wood at considerably exhorbitant price. The fact that many species particularly Red Sanders are getting extinct, points to the destruction of their natural habitats, forests are being destroyed illegally for meeting the needs of man. In the subject of its study, the technologically sound countries that are importing Red Sanders at a high price should come out openly regarding utility. For proper regulation, control, conservation and development it is necessary that the subject should be brought under the bill of effective legislation.

MAGICO-RELIGIOUS RITES IN AGRICULTURE OF THARU TRIBAL COMMUNITY OF INDIA

This study is based on a primary survey using Direct/Participant Observation and Interview methods to arrive at the conclusions. The available secondary resources, however, have also been used. The primary information was collected from twenty-five Tharu villages. Main occupation of Tharu tribe is agriculture. The system of agriculture in this tribe is very special, they Mgico-Religious Rites in agricultural activities. The interesting fact is this that an advanced and popular University of Agriculture (G.B.Pant University of Agriculture and technology) is existed in their area so they are doing advanced and scientific agriculture but with their old and traditional Magico-religious rites. The Tharus resort to magical rites which are directed to ward off the insects, protect the crops from the wild animals and augment agricultural produce soon after the sowing. All magico-religious rites conduct by a specialist called as Bharara. He makes a couple of rounds in field, sprinkiling water while reciting some mantras, for best germination. The Tharus belive that by offering dhunwari (Smoke) to the filed is helped in get ride of pests and insects, so they fire and fan the rising smoke in the direction of the wind. A number of devices are employed by the Tharus to promote and protect their crops. _____________________________________________________________

Anticipated Performance Index of some tree species considered for green belt development in and around an urban area: a case study of Varanasi city, India

Trees in urban areas play an essential role to cleanse the airborne particulate pollution in human environment. It is well established that trees help to reduce air pollution, and there is a growing impetus for green belt expansion in urban areas. Identification of suitable plant species for green belts is very important. In the present study, the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of many plant species has been evaluated by analyzing some important biochemical parameters of leaves viz. ascorbic acid content, total chlorophyll, leaf extract pH and relative water content. The Anticipated Performance Index (API) of these plant species was also calculated by considering their APTI values together with their socio-economic and biological parameters viz. tree habit, canopy structure, type of tree, laminar and hardiness. Based on these two indices, the most suitable plant species for green belt development in urban areas were identified and recommended for long-term air pollution management. Keywords: Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI); Anticipated Performance Index (API); Green belt; Management

Environment Modelling using Google Map API for landfill site selection for solid waste treatment.

Use of GIS has been successfully applied in the past for site selection for which specific requirements have to be fulfilled. The best location for a Supermarket in an urban area, the foundation of a new railway station etc., is some other examples of such problems. The proposed GIS model can serve as a tool for such a selection and the final decision will still be left to the human researchers. However, the higher overall quality of the GIS model, the higher role it will play for the final decisions and the higher help it will offer. Location of landfill sites can be done through commercial GIS models mainly developed by developed countries. But municipalities in developing countries like India and in Africa neither have the money nor the skill to support these costly and sophisticated GIS products. Moreover user interface and other technical details in this software have being designed to take care of requirement specification from developed world. A need is felt to develop a GIS model exclusively that can take developing countries perspective into account. So, this work is on GIS models that can be modified as per our needs. This paper mentions about the integration of Open Google Map API into a website and perform different operations for selection of landfill site in developing countries. Similar work can be carried out on other Map APIs like MapQuest APIs etc. No special development tools are required in order to take advantage of Google’s mapping API all that is necessary is a text editor, Web browser, and a public Web server from which the scripts can be served.

Landscape Ecological Mapping: A Tool towards Green Productivity

Abstract: Green Productivity(GP) is a strategy for enhancing productivity and environmental performance for overall socio-economic development. It is the application of GP methodology comprising the appropriate techniques, technologies and management system to produce environmentally compatible goods and services. Green Productivity has universal applicability; it can be applied in manufacturing, the service sector, agriculture and within communities to enhance local economic developments projects. However the adoption of GP has to be improved to meet the rising challenges of the social and ethical business agenda, address basic human needs and poverty alleviation as well as the integration into knowledge from and for information-based markets. The prime objective of Green Productivity is based on Quality enhancement, productivity improvement environmental protection and sustainable development. Ecosystem has undergone massive degradation due to imbalances between its natural and anthropogenic components. The expansion of the anthropogenic components at the cost of naturalness of the ecosystem has even more focused on green productivity and sustainable development with an overall quality improvement of the ecosystem. Hence our objective should be to monitor the present and thereby analyze the changing scenario of the ecosystem. Satellite image interpretation has been found to be impressive for continuous monitoring of the ecosystem. Hence in this paper an integration of remote sensing study has been made with ecosystem management to attain green productivity, as Eco Mapping is an important tool to achieve green productivity. A multitemporal data study has lead to the analysis of the changing landscape. The paper deals with identification of ecological units, their change in time scale and cause-mitigation analysis. Paper lays stress on the application of Eco Mapping through Remote sensing Technology for Eco-restoration & sustainable development, which is the ultimate aim of Green Productivity.

Concept Of Coastal Zone Health Index (CHI) As An Indicator Of Sustainable Landuse Allocation Practice For Eco-Sensitive Coastal Cities

This Paper is the outcome of author’s PhD work done at Indian Institute of Technology, (IIT) Madras. It is linking landuse planning and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) as the context that necessitates ICZM to be done, is mostly a result of lack of/inappropriate planning practices. Based on an experts’ opinion survey conducted across major coastal cities in India, the critical components of coastal zone sustainability is assessed from an anthropogenic impacts point of view and a metric called CHI(Coastal zone Health Index) is modelled to measure the health status of urban coastal zones. Anthropogenic impacts have their humble origin at the way we allocate landuses. The basic hypothesis is that majority of problems in coastal cities can be avoided, and you can put them on track to become eco sensitive coastal cities, if we plan for the landuse on coastal zones carefully and after an impact analysis. The paper covers the methodology framework of developing a metric for coastal zone health which is named as CHI, and to quantify the critical landuses influences on such a metric and with both these in place, how landuse decision-making in the case of coastal cities is made more rational, eco-friendly and sustainable. Based on this a DSS (Decision support system) can be built for any coastal zone of sensitivity. As a policy, any new landuse plan proposal, or part thereof is checked for its effect /impact on this status and based on the extent of impact on CHI, the proposal may be approved, asked to be altered or altogether dropped. Thus the process of landuse planning/masterplan preparation for Coastal cities is ensured to be eco-friendly and sustainable on a continuous basis.

Sustainable Development: Aspects of City Building

The concept of the ecological city has a long history within western theories of urbanism: from the notion of the perfect city as the embodiment of the perfect body (Renaissance) to the city as diseased body (Nineteenth Century) to urban sociology’s empiricist turn to science to describe the effects of modernization on both urban inhabitants and urban form (Twentieth Century). Many of these values remain imbedded in contemporary urban planning models, even as modifications are made to incorporate notions of sustainability and to reincorporate the image of the historic city within the new city as a signifier for a sustainable city. Within the last two decades this combination of modernization and historicism has had significant impact on the explosive growth of Indian cities. . North Guwahati or Amingaon is small town in the Northern Bank of the river Brahamputra ,in North East of India. Due to its geographical location and proximity to Guwahati the capital of Assam it is today an area of great developmental activity , rapid urbanization and industrialization . The area in and around North Guwahati has been, since times in ancient history, a region of national importance with a rich cultural and social life. This project aims to propose measures that can restore North Guwahati to a forward looking city that uses its human and natural potential to fulfil the needs of its people and at the same time balances it with the natural environment; and in the process manages to retain its distinct social and cultural identity. The presentation is part of a Project undertaken by a group of engineering students from Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, which aims to unearth issues and strategies of sustainable development of Amingaon and provides recommendations for inclusive development, through locomotive substitution ,human resource development, agro-industry and preservation of agricultural lands and open space, cultural heritage .The project emphasizes on socialization and education of the values of sustainable development as the primary area of eco-city development discourse today through meaningful interactions of real people within social institutions.

ECOCITIES FORMATION THROUGH CULTURAL PRACTICES: FOCUS ON MATERIAL, SOCIAL AND SUPERNATURAL ASPECTS. SANKHA PRIYA GUHA Lecturer, Dept of Anthropology Haldia Government College

Abstract Cities are centers of cultural innovation and change the characters of which are manifested through cultural practices of the people. The cultural practices are manifested in three different levels: material, social and supernatural. The material facet incorporate multiple structure from city infrastructure to inside home everyday requirements. The social aspect talks of relationship pattern existing among the residents whereas the supernatural aspect talks of a greater unknown world. Life in all the three aforesaid levels in the city life is a recreated identity of tradition masked by a new life in the name of urbanism. The present paper ventures in the life of Kolkata (erstwhile Calcutta) in India where tradition is recreated in terms of rural-agrarian characters. Modernity, in terms of Urbanism is an import of cultural characters from the west. A balance of the two controls the cultural life of the city and in turn helps to restore the ecological model of balance and sustainability. Formation of ecocities therefore require a policy of balance between tradition and modernity in cultural life of the people.

Performance Study of a PV Operated Forced Convection System Used for Solar Tunnel Bagasse Dryer.

H. N. Kudal1 Dr. D. R. Pangavane2 Dr. G. V. Pareshwad3 C. L. Prabhune1 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, SRES College of Engineering Kopargaon-423 603, India. Phone: 91-02423-221772, 223362, Fax: 91-02423-222882, e-mail: hnkudal@yahoo.co.in 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NDMPS College of Engineering Nasik-422 013,India. 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government College of Engineering, Pune-411 005, India. Extended Abstract: This paper presents the design and performance study of a PV operated dc-axial flow fan system used for forced convection solar tunnel bagasse dryer. Based on experiences, gained from the research and field experiments of using the solar tunnel dryer, this type of dryer needs forced convection ventilation to make it function efficiently. For the design of the solar tunnel bagasse dryer, a PV-ventilated system was used. The system consists of a solar cell module and a dc-axial flow fan. The advantage of this system is that it can be used in remote areas without any electricity supplies. In addition, the PV-ventilated system helps regulate the drying air temperature. The natural convection solar bagasse dryer functions properly with the sufficient air flow rate. As the drying area of our dryer is approximately same as the original area of the solar tunnel bagasse dryer, the maximum air flow rate was selected for our dryer. To achieve the maximum required flow rate, an axial flow fan and a dc motor which is available in local markets was chosen for the ventilation system. Before using the dc-axial flow fan, its characteristics were investigated as follows. First the fan was fixed at end of a cylindrical tube and a wire anemometer was used to measure the air speed at the other end of the tube. The distance between the fan and the anemometer is about 10 times of the diameter of the tube in order to obtain a stable air flow in the passage. Then, the flow rate of the air was varied by changing the voltage of the power supply. The current, voltage and air speed were measured. With the air speed and the cross-section area of the, the air flow rate was calculated. The corresponding curves relating the air flow rate and the electrical power used by the fan was plotted. Finally, by using the curve, we obtained the values of the electrical power to achieve the required maximum flow rate. In this work, a 15 W solar cell module was chosen to power the fan. This is because of the fact that it is the only solar cell module available in local markets, which can supply the power nearest to the required power of the fan. To ensure the proper functioning of the solar cell module, an experiment was carried out to determine its characteristics. It was exposed to solar radiation at noon time on a cloudless day. An electrical circuit was made in such a manner that the current (I) and voltage (V) from the solar cell module can be measured for varied values of the external resistant (R). The solar radiation on the plan of the solar cell module was measured. Then the I-V curves obtained from this experiment and that of the fan were plotted in the same graph. From the graph it is shown that this solar cell module can supply the electrical power for the range of the solar radiation of which corresponds to the flow rate. This range of flow rate covers the value of the flow rate required by the dryer. For the construction of the PV operated dc axial flow fan system used for forced convection solar tunnel bagasse dryer, most parts of dryer were constructed at the workshop of the Mechanical Engineering Department, SRES College of Engineering , Kopargaon. The system was installed in the east-west direction at the experimental site of the Mechanical Engineering Department, SRES College of Engineering, Kopargaon.

LOW EMF RADIATION POLLUTION OF MOBILE TELEPHONE AND INCREASED MICRONUCLEATED FREQUENCY ASSOCIATED WITH IT AMONG HUMANS

The health concerns have been raised following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephones and electropollution caused by it through out the world. This investigation had been taken, with the motive to find out whether mobile phone radiations cause any in vivo effects on the frequency of micronucleated exfoliated cells in the exposed subjects. A total of 109 subjects including 85 regular mobile phone users (exposed) and 24 non-users (controls) had participated in this study. Exfoliated cells were obtained by swabbing the buccal-mucosa from exposed as well as sex-age-matched controls. One thousand exfoliated cells were screened from each individual for nuclear anomalies including micronuclei (MN), karyolysis (KL), karyorrhexis (KH), broken egg (BE) and bi-nucleated (BN) cells. The average daily duration of exposure to mobile phone radiations is 61.26 minutes with an overall average duration of exposure in term of years is 2.35 years in exposed subjects along with the 9.840.745 MNC (micronucleated cells) and 10.720.889 TMN (total micronuclei) as compared to zero duration of exposure along with average 3.750.774 MNC and 4.000.808 TMN in controls. The means are significantly different in case MNC and TMN at 0.01% level of significance. For all other nuclear anomalies (KL, KH, BE and BN cells) the means are found statistically non-significant. A positive correlation was found in the frequency of MNC and TMN with respect to duration of exposure time.

THE CITY CRISIS: BREAKING THE VICIOUS CIRCLE

In many ways, a city reflects the values and culture of a community. Already being surcharged with all-round crises, the cities also then substantiate how a community ultimately promotes its vulnerability to multifarious risks, knowingly or unknowingly and over time! Cumulative effects of daily decisions and actions have pushed our community life in a mesh. Daily tensions arising out of safe drinking water to basic civic amenities such as a clean, safe and habitable infrastructure are being increasingly manifested in almost every city of India and also of the world! Vulnerable people are increasingly increasing encompassing all segments and class of society. In the net analysis, all these basic societal problems are left chronically unresolved even with the scientific capability of many showcasing miracles. There is something seriously wrong and the trend needs to be reversed. The paper first attempts to categorize the all-round crises of our cities in a sustainability perspective. It then argues that the vicious circle of crises will never be broken, unless making sustainability a public value is targeted by all possible means. The paper then advocates for integration of all-round risk management under a framework of sustainability. Finally the paper concludes by identifying and discussing some operational strategies that can be undertaken as a whole of society approach for reversing the current trend and paving the ways for transforming today’s cities to a livable place for us as well as for our childrens children.

Ecological Ethics And Cultural Dimensions Of Biodiversity Conservation: Case Study Of Tribal Villages In Bastar, India.

The globalization along with new industrial policy adopted by the government, the land and common productive resources within tribal territories have been increasingly transferred to control of multinational corporate houses. The biopiracy activities by corporate houses spreads like wild fire. The intellectual and cultural property rights of these tribal healers and innovators have been violated adversely. Hijacking the control of local communities over their resources, economies and cultural either by government or by middlemen or by multinational would create threats to development intervention in these forest territories of Chhatisgarh. These communities are not allowed to work internally to expand and change their knowledge system since decades together. Denial of ownership to community land, mines, common productive resources, self-reliant heritage and knowledge system have diluted the sustainability and self-reliance components of any development initiatives planned for these communities. The possible integration of traditional knowledge system, communities, institutions with mechanism of conservation of natural resources is overlooked. The biological resources in these indigenous territories of Chhattisgarh consists of natural sources of agricultural, medicinal, ecological, veterinary and cosmological utility which ensure equilibrium between local environment and social health of the tribal communities inhabiting in these forest villages. These biological resources influence the cultural practices, resources and local knowledge systems not only among Gond and Halba communities but also among other indigenous communities. The above cultural practices both customary and non-customary, prevalent among Gond and Halba tribes of Chhattisgarh are not only inherited territorially but also continue to evolve under influence of individual innovations and local environment. The deficiencies in careful customization of these cultural practices restrict opportunities for innovation and reproduction of these practices. The circulation and reproduction of natural and social environment and local system of production are followed by these cultural practices, which are potential substrates of local cultural resources.

Agricultural Sustainability and Economic Development: A Cross -Country Analysis

Background Development of modern agricultural practices over last few decades has raised questions on long run viability of current production systems. The spurt in food production across the world in varying degrees relies heavily on intensive use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and related agricultural technology. There is hardly any doubt that uncontrolled and unscientific use of all these agricultural inputs negatively affects the intrinsic value and life span of soil. These concerns have led to the development and proliferation of several alternative agricultural approaches like -organic farming-, -shifting cultivation-, etc. There is no doubt that uses of chemical fertilizers and pesticides increase agricultural yield in a short period, which helps the poor small and marginal farmers to struggle against abject poverty, but this very process nullifies their long run survival. Despite the globalization of agricultural practices across the continents much before the trade related globalization begun just a decade ago, there is no dearth of adequate evidence to the fact that the developed countries have taken conscious and deliberate policies to minimize the permanent damage to the intrinsic fertility of soil. There is a widespread belief that developing countries have resorted to new agricultural technology for faster growth of food production without much attention to the long run fertility of soil. Notwithstanding these aberrations, secondary data as available from UNDO, World Bank and others provide adequate support to the fact that rate of fertilizer use and pesticide application in the developing countries are nowhere near those in their developed counterparts, indiscriminate and unscientific use of these modern inputs in the developing world in the face of small farm and intense rural poverty has been increasingly reducing productivity and surplus which has released an uncontrolled flow of unskilled labour from the rural to the urban. This process has worsened the already overcrowded sustainability of urban system in the developing world. Aim of the Study In this paper, we assume that agricultural sustainability (AS) is an integral part of environmental sustainability, and geographical, cultural and social differences among countries are certainly important factors for development, but economic compulsion is an extremely important and decisive factor under the present “borderless world”. This paper attempts to investigate the relationship between agricultural sustainability, economic development and openness in a broader perspective by constructing inter-country agricultural sustainability index, openness and economic development in a time series cross section pooled framework as well as some threshold level of development at the country level. In this connection, we also try to test the validity of the Environmental Kuznets’ Curve (EKC) across the countries. Data and Methodology We intend to follow both UNDP method and principal component analysis for constructing the agricultural sustainability index and development index. Our choices of variables and also the choice of countries are limited by the availability of data. We shall try to classify selected countries into different income groups following World Bank Atlas Method in order to understand the relationship between economic development and agricultural sustainability of these countries. Our global findings are verified with the help of a small primary survey in selected developed and backward agricultural districts from Indian states. Expected Conclusion and Policy Relevance Unless urgent steps are taken by both government and non-government organizations to imbibe scientific farming among billions of poor farmers across the poorer continents, the Millennium Development Goals may take much more time to fulfill than are dreamed of.

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