Ecocity Insights: Preliminary Comparison of IEFS with ISO 37120

July 14, 2014

by Jennie Moore, Director, Sustainable Development and Environmental Stewardship, British Colombia Institute of Technology

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has just released ISO 37120 Sustainable development of communities — Indicators for city services and quality of life (http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=62436). The purpose is to advance a holistic and integrated approach to sustainable development through uniform measurement of standardized indicators. The hope is that the indicators will be used to track and monitor city performance towards the goal of achieving sustainability. However, conformance to the standard does not confer sustainability status.

The ISO 37120 indicators are categorized as “core” (mandatory), “supporting” (voluntary), and “profile” (descriptive). The Ecocity Framework and Standards (IEFS) groups headings of indicators according to “Urban Design,” “Bio-Geo Physical Features,” “Socio-Cultural Features,” and “Ecological Imperatives.” Both IEFS and ISO 37120:2014 are intended to be applicable to any city, municipality or local government regardless of size, location, or level of development. Using standardized indicators helps to make the performance of these cities comparable. A key consideration for both is that the methodology for measurement of indicators is consistent and verifiable. The IEFS indicators emphasize ecological sustainability and social equity in an attempt to distinguish the achievement of a minimum ecocity standard of performance, meaning a city that exists in balance with nature. ISO37120 indicators emphasize city services and quality of life. In the future these indicators could also be used with ISO37101: Sustainable development in communities – Management systems – General principles and requirements anticipated for release in 2016 (http://www.iso.org/iso/home/news_index/news_archive/news.htm?refid=Ref1856). Anyone interested in participating in this standard can send an e-mail to harjung@iso.org.

In a preliminary comparison of the ISO37120 with the IEFS (see Table 1), several important similarities and distinctions are noticeable. Both ISO37120 and IEFS present commonality in addressing topics related to education, economy, and energy. However, there are no headings in the ISO37120 to address food or soils, arguably important gaps where sustainability and resilience are concerned Whereas ISO37120 captures multiple indicators under the heading of “Environment,” the IEFS breaks these down into more refined categories including: “Ecological Carrying Capacity,” “Ecological Integrity,” “Clean Air,” etc. On the other hand, ISO37120 introduces multiple category headings to deal with “Water and Sanitation,” as well as “Wastewater.” The IEFS captures these under one heading: “Clean and Safe Water.” Similarly, ISO37120 introduces multiple category headings for “Health,” “Safety,” “Recreation,” “Urban Planning,” “Telecommunication and Innovation,” and “Finance.” Most of these issues are grouped within the IEFS under two headings: “Healthy Culture,” and “Well Being/Quality of Life.”

There are also differences in terms used for headings that seem to approach measurement of similar phenomenon, e.g. ISO37120 identifies “Transportation” whereas the IEFS identifies “Access by Proximity.” In the case of the latter, the IEFS includes access to shelter within this category, whereas ISO 37120 establishes a separate heading for “Shelter.” Similarly, ISO 37120 introduces “Governance” as a heading, whereas IEFS addresses this topic under the heading “Community Capacity Building.” Where ISO37120 identifies “Solid Waste,” the IEFS identifies “Responsible Resources/Materials.”

These distinctions reveal important nuances in the values and thought-processes that contribute to the emergence of different indicator groupings. The evolution of indicators to measure city performance is an important step towards sustainable community development and specifically what can be defined as an ecocity.

Table 1: Comparison of IEFS and ISO37120 Categories and Headings

British Columbia Institute of Technology School of Construction and the Environment is Lead Sponsor of the International Ecocity Framework and Standards Initiative


Ecocitizen Map Project Slideshow: Casablanca, Cairo and Medellín

April 30, 2014

See the photos from the Ecocitizen Team’s recent trip around the world – Morocco, Egypt, and Colombia – conducting trainings on community mapping. Also includes pictures from the wiWorld Urban Forum 7 in Medellín. Read the rest of this entry »


Ecocity Insights: IEFS at a Glance

April 29, 2014

by Jennie Moore, Director, Sustainable Development and Environmental Stewardship, British Colombia Institute of Technology

The IEFS encompasses 15 conditions that together constitute the parameters of an ecocity (www.ecocitystandards.org). Indicators within each condition inform whether a city is achieving ecocity performance. The IEFS encompasses six levels of performance that move a city from an unhealthy and unsustainable condition through three phases of green city development and onward through three levels of ecocity development. Cities that pass the Ecocity 3 threshold would theoretically achieve GAIA status, existing in regenerative symbiosis with nature’s ecosystems.

In order to understand what constitutes an ecocity, Ecocity Builders has been working with an IEFS Core Advisor Group to develop the Ecocity 1 performance parameters. This includes identification of a suitable group of indicators within each of the 15 ecocity conditions that if achieved would indicate that a given city is an ecocity, a city in balance with nature.

The fifteen ecocity conditions span ecological, social and economic considerations and comprise the following:
- access by proximity
- clean Air
- clean and safe water
- healthy soil
- responsible resources and materials
- clean and renewable energy
- healthy and accessible food
- healthy culture
- community capacity/governance
- healthy and equitable economy
- lifelong education
- well being/quality of life
- healthy biodiversity
- earth’s carrying capacity
- ecological integrity

Next steps in developing the IEFS include working with early partner cities to test the applicability and suitability of the indicators within each of the 15 conditions. In some cases the data needed to assess an indicator may not be available or may prove costly to obtain. Strategies for accessing data and obtaining missing information will need to be explored in order to develop the IEFS in such a way that all cities, regardless of their level of development and access to resources, can participate in self-assessment using the IEFS.

framework6

British Columbia Institute of Technology School of Construction and the Environment is Lead Sponsor of the International Ecocity Framework and Standards Initiative


Postcard from Rio, Part 3

June 28, 2012

This month, a team of Ecocity Builders associates went to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) to give talks, listen, collaborate with local communities, and promote the International Ecocity Framework and Standards initiative. This is part 3 of a series of impressions from Rio.

by Jonn Braman, IEFS Core Advisor

As a public servant and environmentalist, one of the things that impressed me at Rio+20 was the number of Environment Ministers attending who took time to interact with the Major Working Groups.

Rio Centro exhibit, photo by Rick Smith

Brasil’s minister spoke at a couple of events I attended, highlighting her country’s achievements toward sustainability, which are many. I am not sure their shift in policy around the Amazon forests is being seen as positively by others as she described. But certainly their progress away from fossil fuels is impressive and if my nose’s impression of Rio’s air quality is accurate, even with this cold, vehicles burning cleaner fuels will be most welcome here.

Denmark’s Ida Auken spoke briefly about the successes and challenges in her country. Geothermal energy provides them with huge potential for green energy export, but comes with nature’s own air quality challenges for the planet, and in particular for those living on the smaller islands, while the much larger Greenland continues to “green” as the ice pack on it melts at an ever alarming rate. Recent measurements of CO2 levels at 400 ppm on Canada’s equally northern Ellesmere Island seem to indicate the permafrost melting feedback loop may have begun. I would very much liked to have heard more from her, but she cut her talk short to accommodate Ban Ki-Moon arrival at the session.

Of all the environment ministers I heard (and I didn’t get to all sessions) it was the Singapore Minister for Environment and Water Resources that resonated most for me. As a city nation responsible for 5 million citizens on a 30 km long island they, like many island nations, are good allegories for our only planet. They do not have the space for waste or contaminants and they have a very real water supply challenge with a fully built environment. Unlike our planet, they do have neighbors to trade with and they are supporting their commerce, in part, with “green economy” such as export of their desalination technology. Tianjin, a Sino-Singapore Eco-city development is another example. While neither Singapore, nor Tianjin are ‘perfect’ EcoCities in the visionary sense, they are huge steps forward in the recognition of the finite capacity of our planet and our species essential role to ‘get it right’. We can only hope all our countries ‘get it’ and soon!

Petroleo e morte bici e vida. “Oil is death, bicycle is life.” Photo by Rick Smith.


Postcard from Rio, Part 2

June 27, 2012

This month, a team of Ecocity Builders associates went to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) to give talks, listen, collaborate with local communities, and promote the International Ecocity Framework and Standards initiative. This is part 2 of a series of impressions from Rio.

by Jennie Moore, IEFS Core Advisor

Richard Register at the ICLEI Townhall. Photo by Rick Smith.

At the ICLEI Town Hall meeting held at Rio Centro on June 21st, several sustainable cities approaches were showcased. Jeb Brugmann, ICLEI founder and past Secretary General, highlighted the value of “productive cities” that can produce food, energy and water within the built environment through use of various technologies including passive solar for water heating and space-conditioning, photo-voltaics for electricity generation, urban agriculture, rainwater harvesting, etc. He called upon the mayors and city officials present to puruse creativity and courage in leading their cities to innovative solutions that address the need for more sustainable modes of production and consumption. While he acknowledged that transformation in the economy is also critical, his message that cities are key to sustainability solutions echos that of Richard Register’s message about ecocities.

Register’s presentation at this same event emphasized the important role of cities in addressing climate change by creating places where people can live free from automobile dependency. Register outlined the five strategic areas that must be addressed to acheive cities that are in balance with nature:
i) population: enable women to access education, jobs and family planning services
ii) agriculture – diet nexus: secure productive agricultural spaces within and surrounding cities and avoid excessive consumption of meat and other foods that are energy-intensive to produce
iii) built environment – design cities, towns and villages to meet the needs of the human body, not hte car body
iv) generosity – this is the opposite side of greed! We must focus on how we can help each-other to produce safe, happy and fulfilling lives while living within the means of nature
v) education – that helps inform people about the above four issues.

Rio de Janeiro. Photo by Rick Smith

Konrad Otto Zimmerman, the current ICLEI Secretary General, sumarized the ICLEI Town Hall Cities Day event by observing that “if you listen to the political statements, you realize that we are going to need ecocities.” At the ICLEI World Congress 2012 held in Belo Horizonte, Brazil prior to the Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development, ICLEI agreed to launch the Global Ecocity Network comprising five cities that will engage with Ecocity Builders to test and further contribute to the development of the International Ecocity Framework and Standards. Mayor Joao Coser of Vitoria, Brazil, has agreed to chair the ICLEI Global Ecocity Network. Mayor Coser is also the President of the Brazilian National Front of Mayors.

Mayor Coser of Vitoria, Brazil joined Richard in a panel discussion at the June 21st ICLEI Town Hall (Cities Day) to talk about the importance of sustainability in cities. Other panelists included Tong Yen Ho, CEO, Sino-Singaporte Tianjin Ecocity, Investment and Development Company and Marianne Fay, Chief Economist for the Sustainable Development Network of the World Bank. While panelists represent different perspectives and experiences, they all agree that moving towards sustainability in cities is key.


Postcard from Rio, Part 1

June 27, 2012

This month, a team of Ecocity Builders associates went to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) to give talks, listen, collaborate with local communities, and promote the International Ecocity Framework and Standards initiative. This is part 1 of a series of impressions from Rio.

by Rick Smith, IEFS Core Advisor

Rick Smith’s view of Rio

What do Ecocity Builders, Jeff Sachs, and Walmart have in common? They each came to Rio+20 to promote the need to measure, set standards and goals for sustainable development.

In 2008 in San Francisco at the Ecocity Summit, attendees urged Ecocity Builders to launch a program to create an Ecocity labeling system for cities. After all, anyone could claim that they were an Ecocity and not have to justify the label. Well meaning developers build green buildings in locations that have a bioregion that cannot support a major city. Until that point, Ecocity Builders focused on design, advocacy and demonstration projects. After almost three years of incubation with a set of core advisors, the International Ecocity Framework and Standards was launched at the 2011 Montreal Ecocity Summit. This new framework proposed 15 Ecocity Conditions that include the Bio-physical, Socio-Cultural and Ecological Imperatives. Ecocity Builders has partnered with the British Columbia Institute for Technology (BCIT), the William and Helen Mazer Foundation, Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLIE) and China to move the IEFS forward. The next step will be joining Early Partner Cities to crowdsource and Beta test the standards.

Kirstin Miller at Rio Dialogues

The excitement of the IEFS launch helped bring Ecocity Builders into the Major Groups process for the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, otherwise known as Rio+20. For 10 months, Executive Director Kirstin Miller flew back and forth to New York to help negotiate the zero draft of the cities portion of the outcome document. While this conference was not set up to have a treaty as an outcome, the consensus document for the conference was anticipated to be a firm global policy framework to encourage voluntary commitments among member states and civil society. As it turned out, the section on cities was rather uncontroversial in the ideological and vested quagmire of population planning, technology transfer, technology transfer, armed conflict, and carbon emissions. The Vatican will not allow a statement that remotely resembles a call for contraception. Wealthy countries do not want a statement that remotely resembles an obligation to increase development assistance or weaken intellectual property rights. Few nations wanted to give up war or burning.

Demonstration at the People’s Summit. Photo by Rick Smith

Although the cities section placed an emphasis on cities as a solution to sustainability, the document did not contain any language to encourage an IEFS. However, the Government of Brazil provided one bright opportunity unprecedented in United Nations conferences. They created a social media site for conference participation and invited the world to join. Global citizens were asked to crowdsource ideas and vote on the best ones. Ecocity Builders convened a meeting with other city NGOs and came up with a proposal to promote global standards of sustainability for cities. Two weeks before the conference, this proposal was selected by an expert panel to be in the top ten that went to the world for a vote. When we arrived in Rio, the Government of Brazil schedules a panel discussion for these recommendations on Monday, June 18th. The world would pick one of the top ten by an internet vote, the attendees of the conference would pick one and the expert panel on cites would come up with a third recommendations. For about a week, we had no idea if our proposal would go forward or exactly how this would work. We even had to apply for special tickets to the Dialogue Days events that were to occur between the Preparatory Conference and the Main Summit.

Exhibit at Rio Centro. Photo by Rick Smith

When the winner was announced on Saturday, June 16th, we were devastated. Our proposal came in 6th and the winner was to use waste as a source of energy. While biomass has a role on a small scale, it is not always the most efficient use of resources because some biomass has embedded energy that can be recycled for other purposes. However, when we saw that the panel had our old friends Janice Perlman, Jaimie Lehner and David Cadman we saw some hope that they would be able to present our idea to the world. We arrived at Dialogue Days with a prepared question for the panelists. The panelists had a similar reaction to the world vote on solid waste for energy. Indeed, informal waste pickers staged a bit of a protest in the audience when it was time for questions and answers. Millions of people–mostly women in the world make a living in recycling industries. If we simply burned our trash, it would but these families out of business. Mayor Lehner made a good pitch for standards as did Mr. Oded Grajew, President Emeritus of the Ethos Institute. However, when it came time for the Sustainability Director of one of those “self-proclaimed” ecocities to speak, she said, “We do not need sustainability standards for cities because every city is different. If you want to see a sustainable city, come to ours.” An architect on the panel chimed in to say that you know a sustainable city when you see it.

Our proposal was doomed. With 76% of the vote, the audience voted for “Plan in advance for sustainability and quality of life in cities.” While it was not our proposal, it was not anything to disagree with. Our proposal sunk with only 15% of the vote. However, when the panel deliberated, Janice Perlman said, “You know, we are all of one mind here at the table, let’s integrate some of the comments.” The moderator proposed this text and it was adopted by the panel:

Each head of state should identify a sustainable city to develop a network for knowledge sharing and innovation. Governments should channel resources to develop people-centered sustainable cities with timed and measurable goals, in such way that empowers local communities, promotes equality and accountability.

This recommendation, in a nutshell is the IEFS and engagement with Early Partner Cites, or something very much like it.

Measuring sustainability was very much a theme in other parts of the conference. Business will further advance the Global Reporting Initiative. The consensus document embraced the concept of the Sustainable Development Goals that will replace the Millennium Development Goals after 2015. Kirstin Miller observed the tail end of the SDG negotiations. She observed that the diplomats scratched their heads and didn’t know what to say and called out for the experts to guide them on developing SDGs. We will do just that and we are not alone. ISO will also be engaging with sustainability measures for cites. And UN Advisor Jeff Sachs remarked at a panel for youth, “The Sustainable Development Goals will work because they are not a treaty. The three treaties from Rio 92 were excellent and never implemented but created a cottage industry for lawyers. The MDGs work because no country wants to be seen as being worse off than others.” Ecocity Builders will be moving forward with the IEFS to encourage each city to race to stay within the earth’s carrying capacity.


‘Global Standards of Sustainability for Cities’ proposal advances to the final round of Rio+20 Dialogues

June 8, 2012

Ecocity Builders and the United Nations NGO Major Group’s proposal ‘Global Standards of Sustainability for Cities’ has advanced to the final round of the Rio+20 Dialogues. Please support us so that the proposal can be delivered directly to Heads of State at Rio+20. Everyone can vote directly from the link.

1. Go to http://vote.riodialogues.org
2. Click on ‘Your Vote’
3. Scroll to : Sustainable Cities and Innovation
4. Vote for: Promote global standards of sustainability for cities.
5. Share!

As the Earth’s ecosystem and climate is rapidly reaching a “tipping point” it’s becoming increasingly clear that we humans all have to pull together to turn the mothership around. Luckily, the upcoming United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio (Rio+20) from June 20-22 (and the weeks leading up to it starting right now) is offering many great opportunities for people from all over the world to come together, build bridges, and draft a common path upon which all residents of this breathtakingly beautiful planet we call home can journey towards a sustainable and equitable future.

Read the rest of this entry »


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